Solubility and Solubility Product of Salt

7.19 Solubility and Solubility Product of  sparingly soluble Salt Although the terms 'solubility' and 'solubility product'...

7.19 Solubility and Solubility Product of  sparingly soluble Salt

Although the terms 'solubility' and 'solubility product' are related to the solvation of a substance yet there are some basic differences between them.

Solubility and Solubility Product of  sparingly soluble Salt

Comparison between solubility and solubility product

  1. The term solubility is applicable to all kinds of solutes (ionic, neutral, sparingly soluble or highly soluble) whereas solubility product has its meaning in case of sparingly soluble salts only.
  2. The most striking difference between them is that the solubility may change due to common ion effect or formation of complex salt but the value of solubility product remains constant at a particular temperature.
  3. Variation of temperature brings about change in the values of both the solubility and the solubility product.

7.19.1 Solubility product of sparingly soluble salt

The salts having solubility less than 0.01 mol/L at ordinary temperature are commonly known as sparingly sparingly soluble salts, Some familiar examples of such salts are

A salt of such kind in its saturated aqueous solution remains virtually insoluble and only a small part of it gets dissolved, But, the dissolved portion of the salt, how small it may be, gets completely dissociated,

solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt list

Definition of solubility product: The solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt at a given temperature is defined as the product of the molar concentrations of the constituent ions in its saturated solution, each concentration term raised to a power representing the number of ions of that
type produced by dissociation of 1 molecule of the salt.

Characteristics of solubility product

[1] At a particular temperature, solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt has a fixed value. Its value changes with variation in temperature.
[2] At a particular temperature, solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt in its saturated solution remains unaltered if the concentrations of the constituent ions are changed. It remains fixed even in the presence of other ions in the solution.

Equation of solubility product

Let, in the saturated aqueous solution of a sparingly soluble salt AB, there exist the following equilibrium between undissolved solid AB and A+ and B- ions produced by the
dissociation of dissolved AB:

AB(S, undissolved)   = A+(aq) + B- (aq)
Applying the law of mass action we have, equillibrium constant, K = [A+] x [B-]/[AB(s)]

where, [A+], [B- ] and [AB(s)] are the molar concentrations of A+, B- and AB(s) respectively at
equilibrium.
Now, the molar concentration of pure solid at a particular temperature is constant. Again, at a given temperature, the equilibrium constant, K is also constant.
So, at a given temperature, K x [AB(s)] = constant.
      K x [AB(s)] = [A+] [B-]
or, Ksp = [A+]x [B-] [sp=solubllity product]
where, Ksp = K [AB(s)] = constant. K is called the solublity product or solublity product constant of sparingly soluble salt, AB.

7.19.2 Relation between solubility and solubility product

[1] In case of sparingly soluble salt of the type AB : Equilibrium set up by a sparingly soluble salt of type AB in its saturated aqueous solution is,

AB(s) = A+(aq) + B- (aq).
Hence, Solubility product of AB, Ksp = [A+][B-]
Let, the solubility of the salt, AB in its saturated aqueous solution at a given temperature be S mol/L.Hence, in the saturated solution of AB, molar concentration of the ion A+, [A+] = S mol/L and molar concentration of the ion B-, [B-] = S mol/L [ As1 molecule of AB dissociates into 1 A+ and 1 B- ion]

Kp = [A+] [B-] = S.S = S^2 .............[1]
  and S = (Ksp)^(1/2) .............[2]
Equation (1) is the relation between solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salt of the type AB.
From equation (2) it can be said that solubility of the sparingly soluble salt, AB is equal to the square root of its solubility product.

[2] In case of sparingly soluble salt of the type AxBy : The following equilibrium exists in the saturated aqueous solution of a sparingly soluble salt of the type, AxBy :

sparingly soluble salt of the type AxBy

Relation between solubility (s) and solubility product (ksp) of some sparingly soluble salts

Relation between solubility (s) and solubility product (ksp) of some sparingly soluble salts

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Advanced Chemistry: Solubility and Solubility Product of Salt
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