Name Reaction for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry

Important Chemical Reactions for Class 12 Chemistry Here are some important chemical reactions which every student of class 12 must ha...

Important Chemical Reactions for Class 12 Chemistry


Here are some important chemical reactions which every student of class 12 must have a thorough understanding of. All Organic  Naming reactions for 12th Board Exam. Last Minute Chapter wise revision by Advanced Chemistry.
Name reactions of Organic chemistry
30 Important Name Reactions Every NEET and JEE Aspirants Should Know

Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Finkelstein Reaction:

The Finkelstein reaction is an organic reaction where an alkyl halide is converted into another alkyl halide by reacting with a metal halide salt. This is an equilibrium process and it is driven forward by taking advantage of the poor solubility in acetone of the newly formed metal halide salt (Le Chatelier's principle).
Finkelstein Reaction
Finkelstein Reaction

Swarts Reaction:

 When alkyl chloride is heated in the presence of a metallic fluoride like AgF, Hg2F2, SbF3 or CoF2, we get alkyl fluorides.
Swarts Reaction

Wurtz Reaction:

When Alkyl halides get reacted with sodium with dry ether, we get hydrocarbons that include the double number of carbon atoms present in the halide. This is known as the Wurtz Reaction
Wurtz Reaction


Fittig Reaction: When two moles of aryl halide reacts with  two moles of sodium(Na) in presence of dry ether then biphenyl is obtained. This reaction is known as Fitting reaction
Fittig reaction
Wurtz-Fittig Reaction:


Friedel-Crafts alkylation Reaction:

Benzene is prepared with an alkyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride to give Alkylbenzene.
Friedel-Crafts alkylation Reaction

Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction: 

We get acyl benzene when an acyl halide is reacted with benzene in the presence of Lewis acids.
Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction

Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers


Hydroboration-oxidation reaction

Hydroboration-Oxidation is a two step pathway used to produce alcohols. The reaction proceeds in an Anti-Markovnikov manner, where the hydrogen (from BH3 or BHR2) attaches to the more substituted carbon and the boron attaches to the least substituted carbon in the alkene bouble bond.

For example: - When propene undergoes hydroboration-oxidation reaction, then it produces propan-1-ol as product. In this reaction diborane i.e., (BH3)2 reacts with propene, which in result generates trialkyl borane as an addition product. Then trialkyl borane is oxidised, by using hydrogen peroxide in the presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide to form alcohol, as final product.

Oxymercuration Demercuration reaction:

 A reaction in which an alkene is reacted with a Hg2+ salt and an oxygen nucleophile (water or an alcohol), to form an organomercury intermediate. The intermediate's carbon-mercury bond is then converted to a carbon-hydrogen bond by treatment with NaBH4. The overall reaction coverts an alkene into an alcohol when the nucleophile is water, or an alkene into an ether when the nucleophile is an alcohol.
Oxymercuration Demercuration reaction

Reimer-Tiemann Reaction

When phenols i.e. C6H5OH is treated with CHCl3 (chloroform) in the presence of NaOH (sodium hydroxide), an aldehyde group (-CHO) is introduced at the ortho position of benzene ring leading to the formation of o-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The reaction is popularly known as Reimer Tiemann reaction.

Reimer-Tiemann Reaction

Kolbe’s Reaction

Phenol reacts with sodium hydroxide to give sodium phenoxide which then reacts with carbon dioxide in acidic medium to give hydroxybenzoic acid.
Kolbe’s Reaction

Williamson ether synthesis

The Williamson ether synthesis is an organic reaction used to convert an alcohol and an alkyl halide to an ether using a base such as NaOH.

Williamson ether synthesis

Chapter 12 Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids

Rosenmund Reduction

The catalytic hydrogenation of acid chlorides allows the formation of aldehydes.
Rosenmund Reduction

Stephen reaction

An alkyl or aryl cyanide dissolved in ether is reduced with stannous chloride and HCl to give aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes. The reaction proceeds by the formation of aldimine hydrochloride (present as stannichloride), which are not stable and hydrolyse to give aldehydes.
Stephen reaction

Etard reaction:

 The Étard reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the direct oxidation of an aromatic or heterocyclic bound methyl group to an aldehyde using chromyl chloride. For example, toluene can be oxidized to benzaldehyde. It is named for the French chemist Alexandre Léon Étard.
Etard reaction

Gatterman - Koch reaction

When Benzene or its derivative is treated with Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) in the presence of Anhydrous AlCl3 or CuCl, it gives Benzaldehyde or substituted benzaldehyde.
Gatterman - Koch reaction

Clemmensen Reduction:

 The reaction of aldehydes and ketones with zinc amalgam (Zn/Hg alloy) in concentrated hydrochloric acid, which reduces the aldehyde or ketone to a hydrocarbon, is called Clemmensen reduction. Clemmensen reduction is one of the most powerful reduction methods in organic synthesis
Clemmensen Reduction

Wolff Kishner Reduction:

 Aldehydes and ketones can be converted to a hydrazine derivative by reaction with hydrazine. These "hydrazones" can be further converted to the corresponding alkane by reaction with base and heat. These two steps can be combined into one reaction called the Wolff-Kishner Reduction which represents a general method for converting aldehydes and ketones into alkanes.
Wolff Kishner Reduction

Tollens’ test:

 Heating an aldehyde with fresh prepared ammoniacal silver nitrate solution produces a bright silver mirror due to the formation of silver metal.

Tollens’ test

Fehling’s test

Fehling’s solution A (aqueous copper sulfate) and Fehling solution B (alkaline sodium potassium tartrate) are mixed in equal amounts before the test. A reddish brown precipitate is obtained when an aldehyde is heated with Fehling’s reagent.

Fehling’s test

Aldol condensation:

 Aldol and Ketol lose water to provide α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds which are aldol condensation products.
Aldol condensation

Cross aldol condensation:

 Aldol condensation is carried out between two different aldehydes and ketones. It gives a mixture of four products if both of them includes α-hydrogen atoms.
Cross aldol condensation

Cannizzaro reaction

Aldehydes without α-hydrogen atom undergo self-oxidation and reduction reaction when prepared with concentrated alkali.
Cannizzaro reaction

Kolbe electrolysis:

 in Kolbe electrolysis, An aqueous solution of sodium or potassium salt of a carboxylic acid gives alkane containing an even number of carbon atoms on electrolysis.
Kolbe electrolysis


Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky (HVZ )reaction:

 Carboxylic acids having an α-hydrogen are halogenated at the α-position on treatment with chlorine (Cl) or bromine (Br) in the presence of small amount of red phosphorus to give α-halocarboxylic acid. This reaction is known as HELL - VOLHARD ZELINSKY (HVZ) REACTION.

Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky (HVZ )reaction

Chapter 13 Compounds Containing Nitrogen

Carbylamine reaction:

 Primary amine (both aliphatic and aromatic) when warmed with chloroform and alcoholic KOH, gives isocyanides (carbylamines). This is called carbylamine reaction. Carbylamines has an offensive smell. This reaction is answered only by primary amine and hence to distinguish primary amine from other classes of amines.
Carbylamine reaction

Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction

When a Primary AMIDE is treated with an Aqueous or Alcoholic NaOH (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) or KOH (POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE) solution and BROMINE, it gives a Primary AMINE which has one CARBON atom less than the original AMIDE.
Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction

Gabriel phthalimide synthesis

Phthalimide prepared with Ethanolic Potassium Hydroxide produces Potassium salt of Phthalimide when heated with Alkyl Halide followed by Alkaline hydrolysis forms the corresponding primary Amine.

Gabriel phthalimide synthesis

Balz-Schiemann Reaction

The conversion of aryl amines to aryl fluorides via diazotisation and subsequent thermal decomposition of the derived tetrafluoroborates or hexafluorophosphates. The decomposition may also be induced photochemically.
Balz-Schiemann Reaction

Sandmeyer Reaction:

 The Sandmeyer reaction is a chemical reaction used to synthesize aryl halides from aryl diazonium salts using copper salts as reagents or catalysts. It is an example of a radical-nucleophilic aromatic substitution

Sandmeyer Reaction

Gattermann Reaction

The Gattermann reaction, (also known as the Gattermann aldehyde synthesis) is a chemical reaction in which aromatic compounds are formylated by hydrogen cyanide in the presence of a Friedel -Crafts catalyst (e.g. AlCl3).
This Reaction is same as SANDMEYER REACTION. But the only difference between both of them is that here we use COPPER POWDER (Cu) in the presence of HCl/HBr, and in SANDMEYER REACTION we use Cu2Cl2/Cu2Br2 as catalyst.

Gattermann Reaction

Hinsberg’s Test

Benzenesulfonyl chloride (C6H5SO2Cl) reacts with primary and secondary amines to produce sulphonamides.

Hinsbergs Test

Coupling Reactions

Benzene diazonium chloride gets reacted with phenol in which the phenol molecule at its para position is mixed with the diazonium salt to give p-hydroxyazobenzene.

Coupling Reactions


To know more about Chemical Reactions in detail, [Follow ##eye##] Advanced Chemistry

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